How do I improve my practice as a professional educator by developing my critical awareness of how I pedagogise knowledge within the academy?

Patricia Mannix McNamara

A paper presented at the Educational Studies Association of Ireland Conference at University College, Cork, March 10-12, 2005 as part of the symposium

The transformative potentials of our self-studies for a new epistemology of scholarship in our university

How do I improve my practice as a professional educator by developing my critical awareness of how I pedagogise knowledge within the academy?

Patricia Mannix McNamara

A paper presented at the Educational Studies Association of Ireland Conference at University College, Cork, March 10-12, 2005 as part of the symposium

The transformative potentials of our self-studies for a new epistemology of scholarship in our university

Click here to download in Word Format 

The process of learning has an entirely different quality for students in the being mode of relatedness to the world…Instead of being passive

receptacles of words and ideas they listen, they hear, and most important they respond in an active and productive way…Their listening

is an alive process (Fromm 1979:38).  

 

Introduction

My doctoral studies are motivated by my belief in the need to hold myself accountable for my practice as a professional educator at third level. In order to do this in a way that is ethical and considerate of others I endeavour to generate my own living educational theory of my practice that respects each person’s intellectual freedom and their capacity to generate knowledge. I am also committed to engaging in educative relationships with students that are characterised by care and reciprocity so as to engage in sustainable education. By sustainable education I mean education that is not imposed but rather engages people in educative relationships so that as people engage their education continues to evolve long after the initial meetings and classroom encounters may have ceased.

My research is focused on my work as a professional educator with postgraduate students. I wished to gain a more in-depth understanding of the nature of educative relationships so that I could better enable my students to think freely and to develop creatively. I wanted to support students to think more critically about the knowledge they were exploring and generating, but also I wished to create dialogical practices that were emancipatory for students and myself. To do this I needed to critically reflect on my own understanding of my capacity to generate knowledge and to critically reflect upon the nature of pedagogical relationships. As I embarked upon this process of critical reflection I quickly became aware of the competing forces that I navigated daily as a professional educator. The marketisation of universities has meant that a technical rationalist approach to knowledge permeates academic institutions and this heavily influences a ‘transmission’ approach to education of students. As I struggled with finding time to engage critically and reflexively with students and indeed to find my own voice within the academy I began to understand that I was experiencing myself as a living contradiction (Whitehead 1989) and that my values of intellectual freedom were being denied in my practice. I also became aware of my potential to unwittingly reproduce social formations of pedagogies of autocracy and elitism (McLaren 1995) by uncritically engaging in the transmission of knowledge. I realised that I needed to be careful to support students in their attempts to find their voice and not to unwittingly silence them through discourses and pedagogical practices that reinforce dominant discourses of oppression. I therefore became aware of the potential of pedagogic discourses to become carriers of something other than itself for example, power relations and patterns of dominance

(Bernstein 2000) so I began to explore alternative ways of understanding how I was pedagogising knowledge as a professional educator in a third level context.

In order to understand how pedagogic practices shape consciousness differentially Bernstein (2000) calls for analysis of the forms of communication that educators and educational institutions employ. Bernstein’s challenge to educators is in the exploration of how power and control translate into principles of communication and how these principles of communication differentially regulate forms of consciousness with respect to their reproduction and the possibilities of change (Bernstein 2000:4). For my work this meant that not only did I need to examine how I understand power

and control as elements of my practice but also how these influenced my style of communication and my attempts to foster educative relationships with my students. My epistemology of knowledge then became the place to begin. I believe that how we understand knowledge influences the types of pedagogies we employ as educators. In universities this is quite contested as radical critics (see Giroux 1988, Apple 1995, 2001) have illustrated how corporate market places have exerted their influence over curricula resulting in technical rationalist ways of knowing. This has led to an expert driven approach to teaching and learning and reinforces dominant elitism by reproducing the values and discourses of elites. Others (see Dewey 1956, Freire 1970, 1976) perceive education as a process of coming to know in relation with others. I understand the generation of knowledge to be a continuous and developmental process and not as reified nor as existing solely external to people, and this in turn influences the types of pedagogies I employ which are cognisant of both student and teacher as engaged in a process of coming to know in relationships that are characterised by mutual respect and reciprocity.

I believe that I am accountable for the types of pedagogical relationships that I engage in with students. I am influenced by Bernstein’s (2000) belief that the forms of knowledge that we subscribe to, which influences the types of pedagogies we employ, also has the potential to influence the formation of one’s own identity as well as the identity of others. Bernstein (2000:59) advocates that identity “which is the dynamic interface between individual careers and the social or collective base” arises out of a particular social order and is influenced by the relations engaged in with others of reciprocal recognition, support, mutual legitimisation and collective purpose. Therefore, as a professional educator I believe that by problematising my practice, by contesting knowledge as a given and by encouraging students to understand themselves as knowledge generators in their own right I am supporting my belief that knowledge is developmental in nature and that I am contributing to the development of my theory of a pedagogy of knowledge that is caring and respectful of my students. I aim to develop a new form of institutional epistemology in my practice, that of “knowing in action” (Schon 1995). Schon (1982) advocates that in addition to calling on our repertoires of propositional knowledge that practitioners also need to call upon their “knowledge in use”. As a practitioner I hold much embodied “tacit” knowledge that I have accrued throughout my professional experience, thus the “knowledge that” coupled with the “know how” that both I and my students bring to our dialogical

encounters means that we are together in a process of coming to know and these are necessary elements for engaging in reflection in action for sustainable forms of education. In reflecting on our practice, in order to improve it, we dialogue so that we can tap into our deep tacit knowledge and raise it to explicit levels of awareness (McNiff 2000). As we dialogue we become aware of our educational values and develop educative relationships, as we do so we are always cognisant of the transformative nature of our work as we embed our values into our practice.

My Practice

So what does this mean for my practice as a professional educator? Educational institutions place heavy influence on the performance of students and actively encourage the maintenance and increase of performance for their own survival, this

can be a Janus faced, however, for while student excellence is important such a focus can also facilitate a “state-promoted instrumentality” to education (Bernstein 2000:61). The intrinsic value of knowledge can become unwittingly eroded. I encourage my students to understand themselves as actively engaged in the development of their own knowledge, (drawing on the work of Vygotsky) so while there is emphasis on pedagogic content, it is done in the context of the pedagogised as an active partner (Bernstein 2000). With my students I engaged in much dialogue and exploration of how we understand knowledge and where we positioned ourselves in the educative relationships we engaged in, for example learner, teacher or both. I am influenced by the advice of Welsh (1990) when she suggests that an important aspect of teaching is to support the theorising process and not be simply concerned with exposure to correct ideas only. I am also aware of her warning of the possible dangers of theorising in that traditional forms of propositional theory have been used in the past to silence others. So with these ideas in mind I supported my students in their theorising as they began to reconceptualise their understanding of knowledge as a developmental, continuous and potentially transformative process.

The importance of educative relationships is an integral aspect of my practice and I believe my educative relationship to hold intense transformative potential, particularly as the quality of relationship that I adopt with my students has the potential to create sustainable educational experiences for them and for myself. Dewey (1916) pointed to the importance of educative influence. I understand educative relationships to be characterised by care, mutual understanding, reciprocity and respect for the intellectual freedom of others. This however is a challenging perspective to hold for any educator for if I respect the originality of mind of others and encourage them to challenge and to question ideas, it follows that they will challenge and question my ideas also. I understand an important element of educative relationships to be humanistic in nature - that of reciprocity. I am influenced by Buber (1970) who advocated that the ‘encounter’ can often be more educationally more fruitful than the intention. Thus the quality of educative relationships that I strive for with my students requires us both to be truly present to one another, engaging in dialogue both in a process of coming to know.

In order to foster educative relationship I also needed (in dialogue with my students) to engage in critical reflection on dominant educative practices from the perspective of power and politics so as to avoid unwittingly reproducing dominant practices, which could result in my providing students with particular forms of knowledge or indeed to reproduce what Freire (1970) terms “the culture of silence”. To do so would be a denial of my values within my practice. Thus we began to explore question such as

How do we understand power?

How is power constructed and reinforced in teaching and learning?

How can we use our power positively in our learning and our influence with others?

In reconceptualising our understanding of power we began to understand power as constituted in the relationships we have with others (Foucault 1997) and our dialogues began to centre on our awareness of institutional power within our working lives and indeed within our learning also. This is quite challenging for once one becomes aware

of the influence of power exerted by others towards oneself and indeed by oneself in relation with others it brings with it a responsibility for ethical responses and behaviours but also a responsibility for ownership of ones ideas, behaviours and responses. The critical question became for me how do I use my power positively in the educative relationships I foster with students?

This in turn influenced how I understand the importance of dialogue in educative relationships. I have become critically aware of how power is constituted in the relationships I have with students as we engage in the development of our knowledge. It is necessary for both my students and I to have a critical awareness of the presence of power in our relationships as we engage in the pegagogisation of our knowledge, which also influences the construction of our identities in relation with each other. If we are to engage in genuine dialogue then our awareness of the influence of our social and political contexts on our learning is important. I understand genuine dialogue to be characterised by empathy and critique and as an educator I strive to create educative encounters where Habermas (2001) ideal speech situations can be realised. This means that each person engaged in the encounter is autonomous and can offer ideas, agree and disagree freely. Also that communication is neither impeded by external contingent forces nor constraints from the structure of the communication itself (2001:97). Habermas has identified the influence of the work of Chomsky (1962) in his conceptualising the ideal speaker/listener. For Habermas communicative action is orientated towards reaching mutual understanding and in the educative relationships I foster with students we are both acting communicatively to arrive at mutual understandings in the process of generating knowledge. The language that we use, the reason we employ and the actions we engage in are inherently intermeshed (Habermas 2001). Sustained dialogue is an important part of the educative encounter that I strive to create as it encourages the dialectical nature of learning and allows the process of coming to know to be continuous and developmental. I believe that fostering of sustained dialogue can be enriching and is important for sustainable education.

Conclusion

As I endeavour to develop my theory of the pedagigisation of knowledge in third level contexts I am also illuminating the journey of my own development and learning. I am committed to the value of intellectual freedom and this in turn heavily influences my understanding of the quality and form of educative relationships. In the course of my doctoral studies I have come to understand the transformative potential of my educative relationships, this concept is not new it has been signposted in the writings of others as Dewey (1916, 1956), Bernstein (2000), McNiff (2000). I believe that the significance of my research is my reconceptualisation of the pegagogisation of knowledge in third level contexts. As I engage in creating my new scholarship of educational inquiry (see Whitehead 1999) I perceive that my practice as a practitioner and researcher has the potential to foster sustainable education for students and myself but also significantly for practitioners within the academy. As I engage in the sharing of ideas with colleagues (not only with those involved in teacher education but among the wider disciplines of humanities and business) I am encouraged by their responses, which are full of interest. As they engage in dialogue with me about ‘how’ I embed my values within my practice I perceive my potential to influence their awareness of how they understand knowledge and pedagogy. It is my belief that once they begin to critique their own understanding of knowledge and of teaching and learning that they may be influenced to interrogate their own practice and thus develop their own practices of sustainable education for themselves and their students. I believe the significance of my work also lies in the generation of my theory of educational transformation, which examines the radical potential of pedagogic practices (Apple 1995), for I believe that those practices that reproduce social formations of dominance and control can conversely become pedagogies of potential change.

References

Apple, M. (1995) ‘Education, Culture, and Class Power: Basil Bernstein and the Neo-Marxist Sociology of Education in A. Sadovnik Knowledge and Pedagogy The Sociology of Basil Bernstein. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Apple, M. (2001) ‘The politics of labelling in a conservative age’ in G. Hudack and P. Kin (eds.) Labelling Pedagogy and Politics. London: Routledge Falmer

Bernstein, B. (2000) Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity. Theory, Research, Critique. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc. (Revised edition)

Buber, M. (1970) I and Thou. Edinburgh: T. Clarke

Dewey, J. (1956) The Child and the Curriculum and The School and Society. London: Cambridge University Press

Dewey, J. (1916) Democracy and Education. New York: Free Press.

Foucault, M. (1997) Ethics, Subjectivity and Truth in P. Rabinow (ed.) London:Penguin

Freire, P. (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Seabury (2nd edition)

Freire, P. (1976) Education: The Practice of Freedom. London: Writers and Readers Publishing Cooperative.

Giroux, H. (1988) Teachers as Intellectuals: Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Learning. Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey

Habermas, J. (2001) On the Pragmatics of Social Interaction. Preliminary Studies in the Theory of Communicative Action. Massachusetts: MIT Press Translated Barbara Fultner

McLaren, P. (1995) Critical Pedagogy and Predatory Culture. London: Routledge

McNiff, J. (2000) Action Research in Organisations. London: Routledge

Schon, D. (1995) ‘Knowing-in-Action: The New Scholarship Requires a New Epistemology’ Change, November-December pp27-34.

Schon, D. (1982) The reflective Practitioner: how professionals think in practice. New York: Basic Books

Welsh, S. (1990) A Feminist Ethic of Risk. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Whitehead, J. (1989) ‘Creating a Living Theory from questions of the kind ‘How do I Improve My Practice?’ Cambridge Journal of Education, 19, pp41-52

Whitehead, J. (1999) 'How do I improve my practice? Creating a new Discipline of Educational Enquiry.' University of Bath: PhD Thesis. Available at www.bath.ac.uk/~edsajw/jack.shtml [23rd January 2005].

d in Word Format 

 

 

 

The process of learning has an entirely different quality for students in the being mode of relatedness to the world…Instead of being passive

receptacles of words and ideas they listen, they hear, and most important they respond in an active and productive way…Their listening

is an alive process (Fromm 1979:38).  

 

Introduction

 

My doctoral studies are motivated by my belief in the need to hold myself accountable for my practice as a professional educator at third level. In order to do this in a way that is ethical and considerate of others I endeavour to generate my own living educational theory of my practice that respects each person’s intellectual freedom and their capacity to generate knowledge. I am also committed to engaging in educative relationships with students that are characterised by care and reciprocity so as to engage in sustainable education. By sustainable education I mean education that is not imposed but rather engages people in educative relationships so that as people engage their education continues to evolve long after the initial meetings and classroom encounters may have ceased.

 

 

My research is focused on my work as a professional educator with postgraduate students. I wished to gain a more in-depth understanding of the nature of educative relationships so that I could better enable my students to think freely and to develop creatively. I wanted to support students to think more critically about the knowledge they were exploring and generating, but also I wished to create dialogical practices that were emancipatory for students and myself. To do this I needed to critically reflect on my own understanding of my capacity to generate knowledge and to critically reflect upon the nature of pedagogical relationships. As I embarked upon this process of critical reflection I quickly became aware of the competing forces that I navigated daily as a professional educator. The marketisation of universities has meant that a technical rationalist approach to knowledge permeates academic institutions and this heavily influences a ‘transmission’ approach to education of students. As I struggled with finding time to engage critically and reflexively with students and indeed to find my own voice within the academy I began to understand that I was experiencing myself as a living contradiction (Whitehead 1989) and that my values of intellectual freedom were being denied in my practice. I also became aware of my potential to unwittingly reproduce social formations of pedagogies of autocracy and elitism (McLaren 1995) by uncritically engaging in the transmission of knowledge. I realised that I needed to be careful to support students in their attempts to find their voice and not to unwittingly silence them through discourses and pedagogical practices that reinforce dominant discourses of oppression. I therefore became aware of the potential of pedagogic discourses to become carriers of something other than itself for example, power relations and patterns of dominance

 

 

(Bernstein 2000) so I began to explore alternative ways of understanding how I was pedagogising knowledge as a professional educator in a third level context.

 

 

In order to understand how pedagogic practices shape consciousness differentially Bernstein (2000) calls for analysis of the forms of communication that educators and educational institutions employ. Bernstein’s challenge to educators is in the exploration of how power and control translate into principles of communication and how these principles of communication differentially regulate forms of consciousness with respect to their reproduction and the possibilities of change (Bernstein 2000:4). For my work this meant that not only did I need to examine how I understand power

 

 

 

and control as elements of my practice but also how these influenced my style of communication and my attempts to foster educative relationships with my students. My epistemology of knowledge then became the place to begin. I believe that how we understand knowledge influences the types of pedagogies we employ as educators. In universities this is quite contested as radical critics (see Giroux 1988, Apple 1995, 2001) have illustrated how corporate market places have exerted their influence over curricula resulting in technical rationalist ways of knowing. This has led to an expert driven approach to teaching and learning and reinforces dominant elitism by reproducing the values and discourses of elites. Others (see Dewey 1956, Freire 1970, 1976) perceive education as a process of coming to know in relation with others. I understand the generation of knowledge to be a continuous and developmental process and not as reified nor as existing solely external to people, and this in turn influences the types of pedagogies I employ which are cognisant of both student and teacher as engaged in a process of coming to know in relationships that are characterised by mutual respect and reciprocity.

 

I believe that I am accountable for the types of pedagogical relationships that I engage in with students. I am influenced by Bernstein’s (2000) belief that the forms of knowledge that we subscribe to, which influences the types of pedagogies we employ, also has the potential to influence the formation of one’s own identity as well as the identity of others. Bernstein (2000:59) advocates that identity “which is the dynamic interface between individual careers and the social or collective base” arises out of a particular social order and is influenced by the relations engaged in with others of reciprocal recognition, support, mutual legitimisation and collective purpose. Therefore, as a professional educator I believe that by problematising my practice, by contesting knowledge as a given and by encouraging students to understand themselves as knowledge generators in their own right I am supporting my belief that knowledge is developmental in nature and that I am contributing to the development of my theory of a pedagogy of knowledge that is caring and respectful of my students. I aim to develop a new form of institutional epistemology in my practice, that of “knowing in action” (Schon 1995). Schon (1982) advocates that in addition to calling on our repertoires of propositional knowledge that practitioners also need to call upon their “knowledge in use”. As a practitioner I hold much embodied “tacit” knowledge that I have accrued throughout my professional experience, thus the “knowledge that” coupled with the “know how” that both I and my students bring to our dialogical

encounters means that we are together in a process of coming to know and these are necessary elements for engaging in reflection in action for sustainable forms of education. In reflecting on our practice, in order to improve it, we dialogue so that we can tap into our deep tacit knowledge and raise it to explicit levels of awareness (McNiff 2000). As we dialogue we become aware of our educational values and develop educative relationships, as we do so we are always cognisant of the transformative nature of our work as we embed our values into our practice.

 

My Practice

So what does this mean for my practice as a professional educator? Educational institutions place heavy influence on the performance of students and actively encourage the maintenance and increase of performance for their own survival, this

can be a Janus faced, however, for while student excellence is important such a focus can also facilitate a “state-promoted instrumentality” to education (Bernstein 2000:61). The intrinsic value of knowledge can become unwittingly eroded. I encourage my students to understand themselves as actively engaged in the development of their own knowledge, (drawing on the work of Vygotsky) so while there is emphasis on pedagogic content, it is done in the context of the pedagogised as an active partner (Bernstein 2000). With my students I engaged in much dialogue and exploration of how we understand knowledge and where we positioned ourselves in the educative relationships we engaged in, for example learner, teacher or both. I am influenced by the advice of Welsh (1990) when she suggests that an important aspect of teaching is to support the theorising process and not be simply concerned with exposure to correct ideas only. I am also aware of her warning of the possible dangers of theorising in that traditional forms of propositional theory have been used in the past to silence others. So with these ideas in mind I supported my students in their theorising as they began to reconceptualise their understanding of knowledge as a developmental, continuous and potentially transformative process.

 

The importance of educative relationships is an integral aspect of my practice and I believe my educative relationship to hold intense transformative potential, particularly as the quality of relationship that I adopt with my students has the potential to create sustainable educational experiences for them and for myself. Dewey (1916) pointed to the importance of educative influence. I understand educative relationships to be characterised by care, mutual understanding, reciprocity and respect for the intellectual freedom of others. This however is a challenging perspective to hold for any educator for if I respect the originality of mind of others and encourage them to challenge and to question ideas, it follows that they will challenge and question my ideas also. I understand an important element of educative relationships to be humanistic in nature - that of reciprocity. I am influenced by Buber (1970) who advocated that the ‘encounter’ can often be more educationally more fruitful than the intention. Thus the quality of educative relationships that I strive for with my students requires us both to be truly present to one another, engaging in dialogue both in a process of coming to know.

 

 

 

 

 

 

In order to foster educative relationship I also needed (in dialogue with my students) to engage in critical reflection on dominant educative practices from the perspective of power and politics so as to avoid unwittingly reproducing dominant practices, which could result in my providing students with particular forms of knowledge or indeed to reproduce what Freire (1970) terms “the culture of silence”. To do so would be a denial of my values within my practice. Thus we began to explore question such as

How do we understand power?

How is power constructed and reinforced in teaching and learning?

How can we use our power positively in our learning and our influence with others?

 

In reconceptualising our understanding of power we began to understand power as constituted in the relationships we have with others (Foucault 1997) and our dialogues began to centre on our awareness of institutional power within our working lives and indeed within our learning also. This is quite challenging for once one becomes aware

of the influence of power exerted by others towards oneself and indeed by oneself in relation with others it brings with it a responsibility for ethical responses and behaviours but also a responsibility for ownership of ones ideas, behaviours and responses. The critical question became for me how do I use my power positively in the educative relationships I foster with students?

 

This in turn influenced how I understand the importance of dialogue in educative relationships. I have become critically aware of how power is constituted in the relationships I have with students as we engage in the development of our knowledge. It is necessary for both my students and I to have a critical awareness of the presence of power in our relationships as we engage in the pegagogisation of our knowledge, which also influences the construction of our identities in relation with each other. If we are to engage in genuine dialogue then our awareness of the influence of our social and political contexts on our learning is important. I understand genuine dialogue to be characterised by empathy and critique and as an educator I strive to create educative encounters where Habermas (2001) ideal speech situations can be realised. This means that each person engaged in the encounter is autonomous and can offer ideas, agree and disagree freely. Also that communication is neither impeded by external contingent forces nor constraints from the structure of the communication itself (2001:97). Habermas has identified the influence of the work of Chomsky (1962) in his conceptualising the ideal speaker/listener. For Habermas communicative action is orientated towards reaching mutual understanding and in the educative relationships I foster with students we are both acting communicatively to arrive at mutual understandings in the process of generating knowledge. The language that we use, the reason we employ and the actions we engage in are inherently intermeshed (Habermas 2001). Sustained dialogue is an important part of the educative encounter that I strive to create as it encourages the dialectical nature of learning and allows the process of coming to know to be continuous and developmental. I believe that fostering of sustained dialogue can be enriching and is important for sustainable education.

 

Conclusion

As I endeavour to develop my theory of the pedagigisation of knowledge in third level contexts I am also illuminating the journey of my own development and learning. I am committed to the value of intellectual freedom and this in turn heavily influences my understanding of the quality and form of educative relationships. In the course of my doctoral studies I have come to understand the transformative potential of my educative relationships, this concept is not new it has been signposted in the writings of others as Dewey (1916, 1956), Bernstein (2000), McNiff (2000). I believe that the significance of my research is my reconceptualisation of the pegagogisation of knowledge in third level contexts. As I engage in creating my new scholarship of educational inquiry (see Whitehead 1999) I perceive that my practice as a practitioner and researcher has the potential to foster sustainable education for students and myself but also significantly for practitioners within the academy. As I engage in the sharing of ideas with colleagues (not only with those involved in teacher education but among the wider disciplines of humanities and business) I am encouraged by their responses, which are full of interest. As they engage in dialogue with me about ‘how’ I embed my values within my practice I perceive my potential to influence their awareness of how they understand knowledge and pedagogy. It is my belief that once they begin to critique their own understanding of knowledge and of teaching and learning that they may be influenced to interrogate their own practice and thus develop their own practices of sustainable education for themselves and their students. I believe the significance of my work also lies in the generation of my theory of educational transformation, which examines the radical potential of pedagogic practices (Apple 1995), for I believe that those practices that reproduce social formations of dominance and control can conversely become pedagogies of potential change.

 

 

 

 

References

Apple, M. (1995) ‘Education, Culture, and Class Power: Basil Bernstein and the Neo-Marxist Sociology of Education in A. Sadovnik Knowledge and Pedagogy The Sociology of Basil Bernstein. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

 

Apple, M. (2001) ‘The politics of labelling in a conservative age’ in G. Hudack and P. Kin (eds.) Labelling Pedagogy and Politics. London: Routledge Falmer

 

Bernstein, B. (2000) Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity. Theory, Research, Critique. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc. (Revised edition)

 

Buber, M. (1970) I and Thou. Edinburgh: T. Clarke

 

Dewey, J. (1956) The Child and the Curriculum and The School and Society. London: Cambridge University Press

 

Dewey, J. (1916) Democracy and Education. New York: Free Press.

 

Foucault, M. (1997) Ethics, Subjectivity and Truth in P. Rabinow (ed.) London:Penguin

 

Freire, P. (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Seabury (2nd edition)

 

Freire, P. (1976) Education: The Practice of Freedom. London: Writers and Readers Publishing Cooperative.

 

Giroux, H. (1988) Teachers as Intellectuals: Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Learning. Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey

 

Habermas, J. (2001) On the Pragmatics of Social Interaction. Preliminary Studies in the Theory of Communicative Action. Massachusetts: MIT Press Translated Barbara Fultner

 

McLaren, P. (1995) Critical Pedagogy and Predatory Culture. London: Routledge

 

McNiff, J. (2000) Action Research in Organisations. London: Routledge

 

Schon, D. (1995) ‘Knowing-in-Action: The New Scholarship Requires a New Epistemology’ Change, November-December pp27-34.

 

Schon, D. (1982) The reflective Practitioner: how professionals think in practice. New York: Basic Books

 

Welsh, S. (1990) A Feminist Ethic of Risk. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

 

Whitehead, J. (1989) ‘Creating a Living Theory from questions of the kind ‘How do I Improve My Practice?’ Cambridge Journal of Education, 19, pp41-52

 

Whitehead, J. (1999) 'How do I improve my practice? Creating a new Discipline of Educational Enquiry.' University of Bath: PhD Thesis. Available at www.bath.ac.uk/~edsajw/jack.shtml [23rd January 2005].

What's New

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VALUE AND VIRTUE IN PRACTICE-BASED RESEARCH (2013) EDITED BY JEAN MCNIFF, DORSET, SEPTEMBER BOOKS.

THIS BOOK IS AVAILABLE FOR FREE DOWNLOAD. 

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Read about the Value and Virtue in Practice-Based Research conference at York St John University, Tuesday 9th and Wednesday 10th June 2015. Go to www.yorksj.ac.uk/value&virtue for further information.
Keynote speakers: Dr Tina Cook, Northumbria University

Professor Carol Munn-Giddings, Anglia Ruskin University


Professor Julian Stern, York St John University


Professor Jean McNiff, York St John University

 

 

 

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